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To be a friend where there are few

To be a friend where there are few


On my very first day at the House of Prayer, a worker said, “Jesus has very few friends here, so we want to be His friends.” It was just passing phrase in an introductory conversation. One sentence out of a dialogue. But it marked me; pierced my heart. That one phrase set me on a deep and ongoing conversation with the Lord.


I walk the busy streets of this city, studying the faces of the many people passing by. I eat the food, and drink tea or coffee. I try to converse with locals and make new friends. As I go about my day, these words, “Jesus has very few friends here,” are constantly beating against my chest. Reverberating in the back of my mind. To be a friend where there are few, what does it mean?


I want to be Jesus’s friend here, in this nation, where there are few. To be His friend in the prayer room. Be His friend while walking those same streets day in and day out alongside the multitudes of people. I want to be His friend here, ass I learn the language and interact with locals. But what does it mean to be His friend where there are few?


More that just words and songs, which Jesus is infinitely worthy of, I seek intimate friendship with Him. To be like John the Baptist and rejoice when I hear His voice. To be like John the Beloved and be as close as I can to Him. And even like Peter, who despite all his weaknesses and immaturity, was still a whole hearted friend. I just want to be His friend.


Looking at the cityscape, I see buildings nestled together against sky and water. Peering out the windows I see people going about their day, oblivious to my watching. I ask again, “What does it mean to be Your friend?”


Then, Jesus came and sat down beside me, placing His hand on my back. He smiles across the city, the boats and people in a hurry. And He smiles at me.


“I have not brought you here to wear yourself out,” He says. “You are not just laboring for me, but you are laboring with me. Part of the labor is to just enjoy it with me. Delight with me. Have fun with me. Share about me. Toil with me. Drink tea with me. Talk to the people with me. Walk the city streets and pray with me. Hand in hand. I want you to laborer with me, as friends do.”


As I walk these streets to and fro, day after day, Jesus walks these streets too, going deep into the city to meet with His beloved. Interceding on their behalf, He sings loudly, rejoicing over them, and speaking words of life. He beckons them to come, come to the Father’s. All without them ever knowing. He carries their burdens, like the men who haul around the big garbage carts through the streets. And He’s there when the call to prayer goes out of the mosques. He’s so near to these ones.  It’s a tragedy that they don’t know Him as they should.


What does it mean to be a friend of Jesus where there are few? On my part, to be His friend, I’m still in the process of finding that out. It’s multifaceted. Because there’s a part of me that He wants just for Himself; for me to just be with Him, to hang out as friends do. Jesus desires that sweet fragrance to arise over this region when there are so few who desire His companionship. But there’s another whole side, where I get to tell everyone about my friend, because Jesus is also jealous for friendship here. There are so few friends and He is worthy of them all to know Him as a friend.


The men who carry baskets of bread on their head and sell them at all hours of the day, Jesus wants to be there friend too. The woman who stands at a particular cafe, everyday, showing people to their seats, Jesus wants to be her friend to. The men who sing out the call to prayer in the mosques. The refugee women who peddle knicknacks. The students. Jesus wants friends out of this city and nation.


This friendship with Jesus changes everything, and I want them all to know that too.


Indifference to compassion: Loving the Muslim World

“Much of our ministry is pervaded with judgments. Often quite unconsciously we classify our people as very good, good, neutral, bad, and very bad. These judgments influence deeply the thoughts, words, and actions of our ministry. Before we know it, we fall into the trap of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Those whom we consider lazy, indifferent, hostile, or obnoxious we treat as such, forcing them in this way to live up to our own views. And so, much of our ministry is limited by the snares of our own judgments. These self-created limits prevent us from being available to people and shrivel up our compassion.” – Henri Nouwen, The Way of the Heart


If you’d asked me a month ago if I had prejudice toward Muslims or Arabs in general I would’ve responded with an emphatic no. When I came across a covered woman or saw people walking into a mosque in America, I did not feel a whole lot of anything; which I considered to be a good thing. Now here I am not “belonging” to the culture and faith of this nation and seeing from a whole new perspective how my apathy was not beneficial in ministry. (Is it ever though?) Never had I recognized that my indifference toward the Muslim world was leaving me in lack of a real place within me that God would prefer to cultivate into a heart of compassion.


Upon our arrival into this nation we had a quick layover in a very busy airport. I rushed in to use the ladies room unassumingly preoccupied with my needs when I was taken off guard emotionally. I walked in to find a woman, who moments ago I’d walked past fully covered from the world, to her whole head, hair, and radiant face exposed as she adjusted herself in this space. All of the sudden a place of convenience for me became a place of encountering the face of a woman hidden away from my own heart connecting with moments before. There she’d been like a tree in a whole forest and now the only life standing before me. I felt deep conviction and honor that I was able to see her smiling eyes. This was the start of an invitation to let my heart expose itself for how it truly feels towards Arabs and mosques, and to replace these with a vibrant heart longing for connection to the people of this nation.


Since this encounter, I’ve had many conversations with both men and women who have continued to surprise me. (Side note: I could easily write an entire blog post on the positive ways that Arabs surprise me with their hospitality and generosity – definitely not a side of things we see portrayed when our news stations broadcast this side of the world). They surprise me by what we have in common; the emotions we share on a daily basis, the desire to see good in all things, the love for our families. I’ve also been surprised by what we do not have in common; a belief in a distant God that would never become a man to take away my sin, an oppression towards women with an overall acceptance of this norm, and a perpetual need to cleanse myself approved before the creator of all things. With all of these commonalities and differences, the prayer stirred up within me is, “O God, let my heart be moved by this – whether in mourning or rejoicing, let me be able to feel with these people. Let my judgments not prevent me from entering into a place of deep love and compassion as you had Jesus when you looked out into the crowds seeing them harassed and helpless. Give me a vibrant heart and let my heart speak to theirs that those around me would see the light of the face of Christ shining upon me. Draw them with the love of Your Son.”


May it always be the influence of our compassion and not our judgement that guides our hearts.


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Jesus said yes to ME

Jesus said yes to ME

Every morning, as my roommates and I close the heavy iron door to our apartment, we are greeted by the cool winter air and the silence of an empty street. The clear morning light sweeps over the tops of tightly clustered buildings, and the smell of freshly baked bread fills the air. It won’t be long before the streets are flooded with people and the sounds of the city come to life. As we continue to walk, motorcycles and mopeds buzz past us. Shopkeepers and vendors open their doors, and cafes start to overflow with hungry customers. The call to prayer sounds as we push past a mass of pedestrians and turn into the entrance of an unassuming building. Quickly and quietly, we make our way toward the back and up a dark stairwell. We’re headed to a little prayer room tucked away above the noise.

A year ago I was living under a strong performance mentality, and I was trapped in wrong mindsets that had been lying undercover for years. There was a ceiling, a box, that I couldn’t seem to break past. I wanted to go further, but I didn’t know how. At the same time, because of fear of failure and insecurities, pride was beginning to creep in, and I was beginning to form a way of relying on my own strength to compensate for the feelings of weakness. In the process of growing ever busier, new mindsets were beginning to take shape around already existing dysfunctional ones. I was stuck, and the problem was that I was unable to see that I had a problem. But Jesus saw, and he had every intention to help me.

When the opportunity came to go to the Middle East with MAPS Global, I was all in. I had had the Middle East in my heart for a number of years. I was excited, but little did I realize that the Lord was about to take me through a deconstruction process. Suddenly I was brought face to face with my own shortcomings. The zealous “yes” I thought that I carried, in reality, wasn’t even there. Just like Jesus’ disciple, Peter, who thought he could commit even unto death was challenged, so were the weaknesses in my own heart. It was in this place the Lord began to show me the power of love; the power of His love.

In the book of John and in the Song of Solomon, we see the examples of Peter and the Shulamite woman. Both had history with the Lord, and in both stories there came a point where they were challenged to say yes in a place of weakness and brokenness. Both were fervent lover’s, but both were unable to carry themselves in their own strength. The beauty in each of these stories is that Jesus came to them. After Peter’s denial, Jesus came to him and asked him, “Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?” Peter answered Him, “Lord, you know all things. You know that I love you.” The truth was, Jesus did know. In Song of Solomon 5, the Shulamite lay in her bed. She had become complacent in her pursuit of her beloved, but the King knew

their history of love. He knew she loved him, and so he came and knocked on her door. Her response was to rise and open the door for him.

Jesus knows that even in weakness, when there is nothing to give, love is still willing to say yes. Already knowing our hearts, He comes to us and presents the challenge: “Do you love me?” He knows that we love Him when He asks this, but it’s easy for us to feel disqualified when our performance doesn’t match our expectation. However, we cannot forget Jesus’ reply to Peter’s response. “Feed my sheep.”

The Lord desires for us to partner with him in His kingdom work. He wants to send laborers into the harvest. What’s amazing about this is that He’s not looking for those who will say yes because they feel qualified or feel strong. Weakness does not disqualify you. He’s looking for those that will say yes because they love him. He says, “I’m the one who will finish the work that has been started in you. Do you love me? Because if you do, I’ll help you through your weakness.” We need to remember it’s His strength that is perfected in our weakness.

When I signed up to go to the Middle East, my heart felt dull and weak, but Jesus heard my yes, and He reached out. He qualified me. Now, every morning, as I make my way through the city to the prayer room, tucked away above the noise of the Middle East, I am reminded that I’m here because Jesus said yes to me. I am reminded that I’m here to continue to cultivate a life of intimacy with the One I love, and I am reminded as I look through the window of our little sanctuary over the city, that I’m here because Jesus is saying yes to the Middle East.

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God is a Father

Jesus is His Son and We Are His Children


Itʼs a typical Sunday morning; my alarm goes off around 9:30am and I have thirty minutes before church. However, this specific Sunday stands out among the rest as it is my last day in the US for the next three months.


Fast forward 13 hours and the adventure begins! Weʼre finally aboard our plane to venture on a 14+ hour flight to the Middle East. Heeding the advice given to me for my first ever transatlantic flight, I stay awake for 12 of the 14 hours in order to sleep upon our arrival Monday evening.


By the time weʼve arrived, gone through customs, gathered our luggage, met the local team, loaded up the vans, driven to our “home” for the next three months, ordered and eaten dinner together, and finally unpacked enough items to get through the night, my exhaustion has reached itʼs optimal peak. I strategically grab my ear plugs and eye mask and cozy up for my first night of sleep in the Middle East — that is, until something awakens me.

Through my ear plugs and over my roommateʼs sound machine I hear a muffled voice echoing from outside. I look at my phone, itʼs 5am. Suddenly, I realize what has woken me up. Echoing from the nearby Mosque an Imam projects the sound of the Muslim call to prayer right into our bedrooms.


Itʼs been one week since that night and the call to prayer rings five times a day. The Mosque right across the street from our home is, according to the locals, one of the loudest Mosqueʼs in town. However, it is not the abrupt loudness of the call that disturbs me but rather it is knowing what is being proclaimed over and over, day after day.


Five times a day, every day, throughout the city (and all of the Middle East) rings the Islamic declaration: “God is not a Father and He has no son.” It is this that disturbs and breaks my heart.


As followers of Jesus we know that this is the farthest thing from the truth.


Not only is God a Father, but He loved the world so much that He gave up His One and Only Son to die on the cross so that we might have eternal life. Now, we can receive the Spirit of adoption which enables us to cry out to Him “Daddy, Father!” as His sons and daughters and co heirs with Jesus Christ! (John 3:16, 1 John 3:1, Romans 8:15-17)


In a city and nation where the spirit of antichrist (according to 1 John 2:22) is so boldly and continually declared, I cannot help but carry a holy yet heavy burden.      

“For our battle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the world powers of darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens.” (Ephesians 6:12) We must pray and we must praise.


As a singer/songwriter and follower of Jesus Christ, I know that I am commissioned to wage war in the heavens; to write songs, to join and lead others in the House of Prayer and to go out and share the gospel with those who have not yet heard.


However, it is not enough to go alone. We must wage war together. Is it not worth it to fly 14 hours, endure jet lag, and be woken up at 5am, so that we may stand by our Arabic brothers and sisters in Christ and share the burden for their nations? Therefore, may we, the church, sing praises to Jesus and declare truth together over cities that have only known of a god who is not a father and a Jesus who did not die for them.


Paul said it best when he commissioned the church of Ephesus to “pray at all times in the Spirit with every prayer and request” to “stay alert in this with all perseverance and intercession for all the saints”. Now I commission you. Would you pray for us here. Pray “that the message may be given to us when we open our mouths to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel.” (Eph. 6:18-19)


We pray, go, and send because Jesus is worthy. The Gospel is powerful. And the time is in fact urgent.


The Global Love Song

Christ met His Bride in her brokenness, and having become broken for her that she might be healed by His wounding, He now sings the song of her redemption and beauty. He is the God of the Song of Songs, who rejoices over His love with loud singing. He surrounds His beloved ones with songs of deliverance.

We are surrounded by the Song of a lovesick, passionate Bridegroom who desires our hearts and our love more than He desired His own life. We were the joy set before Him for which He endured the cross, and He now desires that we join Him in the song of our redemption. “Oh My dove, let Me hear your voice, for your voice is sweet.” Song of Songs 2:14. He is longing for her to return to Him her own echoing song of love. He desires heartfelt praise from the ones He has delivered.

Isaiah 12:5 puts the Great Commission into the context of a global song. “Sing to the LORD, for He has done glorious things; let this be known to all the world.” Over and over again we are told to sing to God, to sing a new song to Him. He is not just looking for the salvation of the nations, He is looking for a global Bride that will sing a heartfelt love song to Him. God desires more than men and women who merely stop sinning. God desires more than a sinless people, He desires lovesick people that will lift up their voices to Him. We are saved that we may worship, adore and sing to our Bridegroom, we were saved that we may be priests to our God. “To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever.” Revelation 1:5a-6. Our restoration to a kingly and priestly ministry is the heart of His redemption, and so this is the heart of the Great Commission.    

This is why we go as singing missionaries. We go to sing to our Bridegroom, and to teach His Bride in the nations to join into the song of love for Him. We participate in the priestly ministry of adoration and song before the Lord, and we labor to raise up an expression of priesthood ministry in every nation. We go and surround nations that do not yet praise Him with songs of deliverance. We go and sing songs of deliverance that are birthed in the heart of the God of deliverance knowing that, “Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty.” 2 Corinthians 3:17. We go believing that as praise to Him arises, He will respond with His presence that will awaken hearts to love Him. It is only the presence of God that can draw hearts and nations unto Himself, and so we go and prepare a resting place for Him that they might come. We go and minister to His heart knowing that He will respond with His presence, and only His presence can change and heal a nation. We go to build a resting place for the Lord in the unreached nations because we know that in the presence of the Lord the captives are set free.

We go believing that we do not labor of our own accord, but we pour out our love in full assurance that the day will come when the nations will sing for joy. It is a sure thing that the Lamb will receive the reward of His suffering. It is our joy to go and sing to Him in the nations and watch the story of His glory unfold. Praise will arise from the ends of the earth to our Beloved God, and our Bridegroom will see His desire for a His lovesick Bride fulfilled. He will receive His song.    


The Man in White – We Must Go

In the Middle East the Lord has been moving in powerful ways and many are having dreams of a Man in white. While ministering in a refugee camp during my 90 day placement I encountered many such stories, including the following testimony. I had befriended a middle aged mom of a large family. A few of us had gone to her tent to spend a few hours with her. While we were there, she pointed to her nine year old daughter and said that when she was her daughters age she had had a dream. Throughout the years this dream had stayed with her, and she had never forgotten it. She started to share the dream with us.

“I was in a basement with my two brothers when a Man walked down into the basement with us. His head and hair were white like wool, He shined like light and fire. One of my brothers was huddle and shivering cold. He walked up to him and wrapped him in a white blanket and said, ‘So you will never be cold again.’ My other brother was starving with hunger. He walked up to him and gave him food and said, ‘So you will never be hungry again.’ Then He turned to leave. My heart dropped within me. At first I was afraid to chase after Him, but then I couldn’t stand it so I ran after Him. I grabbed Him and said, ‘Wait, what about me? Where is my gift?’ and He turned to me and said, ‘not yet.’ and then He left. Now all these years I’ve been wondering and waiting for His gift. Now my daughter is the age I was when I had the dream, and I am still wondering when I will get my gift from Him.” One of the believers with me turned to Revelation 1 in the Arabic Bible and showed our friend the passage describing Jesus amongst the lampstands. Our friend began to proclaim with loud shock and excitement, “This was the Man! This was the Man in my dream! How do you know Him? Do you know the gift He has for me?” We shared the gospel with her, the gift of eternal life, which she had never heard before. She could not believe what we had to share and after this time with her she showed continued interest by regularly spending time to talk with the missionaries there and asking questions.

This experience was both inspiring and provoking to me. On one hand, I walked away with my heart burning hotter for Jesus than before, my heart filled with hope that He is indeed reaching out to Muslims with beauty of His countenance. My heart rejoices because there is no one like my God, no one like my King. He is going before His sent ones preparing the way and opening doors for the Gospel like never before.

But on the other hand, I left feeling the weight of the magnitude of the injustice bearing down on me. This woman had a dream of Jesus, the Man in white, and yet she had to wait 30 years before she met a believer who could tell her what the gift was that He wanted to give her. She had lived decades of her entire life under the oppression of Islam before ever hearing the hope of the gospel. This woman whose heart had been so overcome by the beauty of Jesus in her dream that she ran after Him, grabbed Him and would not let go until He promised her a gift, had then spent years pondering, hoping, wondering and waiting before meeting a Christian.

The question and the injustice rages inside of me. My beloved, why are we not going? Have we not seen the beauty of the Man of Jesus Christ ourselves? If this muslim woman would be so moved by seeing Jesus that she would run after Him, without even knowing the hope of the Gospel, how are we as believers who do have the hope of the gospel not even more so gripped by it? My beloved, it is not okay that this woman had to wait 30 years wondering before she met someone who could tell her who the Man in her dream was. It is not okay that 40% of the world has no access to the saving message of the gospel. It is not okay that my Jesus would die on a crossbeam so that every tribe, tongue, people and nation could enter into priestly and kingly ministry with Him and yet 2,000 years later almost half of the world would still not be singing to Him. It is not okay that 2,000 years after we as the church have been given all authority on heaven or on earth and commanded to go we still have almost half of the task remaining. This is not okay. The time is urgent, we have taken too long, we must go! We must finish the task! Our Jesus is worthy of the song every tribe, nation, people, and tongue and we must not stop until this is a reality on earth.


Loving to the End

I remember as a child in a small mill town in the Southeast being struck with fear over a couple of things: one was foreign armies hiding in the cars of the freight train that rumbled through my backyard all hours of the day and night, 365 days a year. I imagined that one day heavily armed soldiers would invade my neighborhood, as if we were somehow a strategic target for the cause of communism. Even more terrifying than atom bombs and fascists was the second thing, the end times. My mom was the only one in my small world bold enough to bring it up, and everytime she did I listened in silent dread to her sober, hushed suggestions of how it would all play out. The memories are too vague to retro-struct her theology, but I know she believed that unspeakable acts of evil would be perpetrated by the antichrist. She was also confident that her Lord would ultimately be victorious and that, in her words, “the devil can’t touch me!” She was a fiery one.

Decades would pass before I began to consider eschatology in a serious way. My disposition at the outset was clouded by the fears of my youth. The first thing I discovered is that Believers who are alive for the Tribulation won’t be spectating from a cloud which, in turn, caused more fear to set in. Biblical literacy and greater observation of world affairs brought together in my mind the Ancient Text and the present age. I could see things happening in the news that made sense in light of biblical prophecy and especially the words of Jesus in texts like Matthew 24. Don’t we all come to that point in our faith when we realize that the Bible is no joke?

It all added up in my mind as bad news and gave me all the more reason to escape to a safe place, as if there was one. Fear reigned.

I’m now years down the road and working for a missions organization that works primarily in the Middle East, center stage, you might say, for the eschatological narrative. I still tremble when I consider the trials that are coming to “all who dwell on the face of the earth,” according to Luke 21. Jesus will confront all that is evil and this confrontation will involve real human beings who will fall on one side or the other of global conflict. The spiritual forces of darkness in the heavenly realms will not give up without a fight. The church will face persecution. Some will be “delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and some of you will be put to death” (Luke 21:16). Indigenous Believers and long-term missionaries in the Middle East will be in the center of the End Times storm. Although Jesus and all who are faithful to the end will ultimately triumph, the Church will suffer. These will be glorious but troublesome times.

Some in the Church ignore eschatology (hey, I did for a long time) in the same way they might ignore a film genre they don’t prefer or understand. Or maybe they lump it together with things like giant meteors striking and destroying the earth: it could happen; it probably won’t, at least in my lifetime; and I can’t do anything about it anyway, so why bother.

Jesus, on the other hand, clearly teaches that we should be very attentive to the signs of the times, that we can and should discern the season we are in, and that we can and should prepare for the last days, lest we get caught with our pants down. The parables of Matthew 24-25 give us insight into how we should carry our hearts and spend our life’s energy in light of His return.

The fact that Jesus tells us how to prepare implies that individuals, families, churches, and perhaps whole cities and regions will have vastly different experiences in the End Times based on how they respond to His wisdom. In considering again recently what it means to be prepared for His return, the following statement from the mouth of Jesus struck me: “And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. But the one who endures to the end will be saved” (Matthew 24:12-13). What should concern us about this season more than what can happen to our physical bodies is what can happen to our hearts, what will, in fact, happen to many hearts, according to Jesus. Should we be afraid of the End Times? Yes, I believe healthy fear is appropriate – the type of fear that causes us to examine our lives with sobriety and course-correct. We just need to fear the right thing, that is, the propensity of our weak, human love to collapse under pressure.


Every organization has its own culture. Whether by design or by default, culture happens. Families, workplaces, churches, and business establishments all embody methods, values and attitudes that can be discerned with even casual observation. I work for a start-up missions organization that is working diligently to create healthy culture. “Culture” is on the agenda of every meeting, day after day, week after week. A few days ago in prayer we stumbled upon another piece of our culture puzzle right out of Matthew 24. As an organization that plans to have thousands of missionaries working in frontier environments in locations all across the 10-40 window; that plans to be laboring in the Middle East for the great end-time harvest until Jesus returns; that plans to remain faithful to Jesus in the midst of demonically empowered, government sanctioned lawlessness, we must be a people who really know how to cultivate and maintain high-quality, steadfast, unshakable love. Jesus’ warning in Matthew 24:12 by all means has application for individuals. Every believer should take this warning personally and begin cultivating a life of unshakable love so that when the day comes where “the love of many grow cold,” we are able to remain steadfast in Jesus and “endure to the end”. But I also believe the individual who plans to “love to the end” must do so in the context of a corporate reality that embraces the value of sacrificial love and seeks to live it out in small ways daily. This sounds easy enough; however, the natural bent of the human heart is to dismiss an unthinkable reality such as rampant lawlessness and to assume that the power to overcome will suddenly manifest when that hour comes.

I experienced this first-hand doing relief work in Nepal after the major earthquake of April 25, 2015. I was traveling with a team of Nepalis delivering supplies to a remote village when a second earthquake hit. Our day of glad-hearted ministry suddenly morphed into a dramatic fight to stay alive amidst deadly aftershocks and landslides. The road was now impassable and vehicular travel of any kind too risky to attempt. The way to “safety” was a rigorous hike back up to the village from which we had come. This “hike” amounted to sprinting past crumbling rock outcroppings, walking short stretches to catch our breath, and otherwise running to the highest village in the vicinity. One life lesson is forever etched into my being after that experience: When crisis hits, it’s too late to top off the tank. Your mental, physical, emotional and spiritual capacities are what they are in that moment. Whatever you’ve genuinely cultivated in your life and what you’ve failed to cultivate become blaringly obvious.

A friend of mine, a devout believer, was working for a major movie production company on 9/11 in New York City when tragedy struck. His crew set up the first lights that allowed relief work to continue into the night. He was a first-hand witness and participant in the early hours of search and rescue at Ground Zero. He testifies that in the midst of the crisis and consequent trauma, he was unable to remember one Bible verse. He would call his mom and have her recite verses to him over the phone.

My point is that the maturity we desire to walk in five or ten years from now must be intentionally cultivated today. Jesus teaches this in Matthew 25 through the parable of the ten virgins. Five of them were wise and had a supply of oil on hand at the midnight hour, allowing their lamps to stay burning as the Bridegroom approached. The foolish were not so fortunate and could neither buy oil at the last minute, nor borrow from the supply of oil the wise had stored up. What they had was what they had when spiritual crisis struck.

It is worth noting that the parable involves ten virgins as opposed to two. In other words, Jesus seems to be pointing to a corporate application. One group was ready, one group was not. What had the five prepared individuals built in their life together that resulted in readiness when Jesus came? Perhaps they strengthened one another, worshiped together, prayed for and encouraged one another, built momentum together, and shared a life in common that resulted in their shared success. Their love for Jesus, which always results in love for others, was cultivated together and, in the end, celebrated together.

The most important thing we can do to position ourselves to love well under pressure is to worship and pray together. I was recently privileged to hear a missionary friend from the Middle East preach. He serves in a frontier environment that has been ravaged by the presence of ISIS. Hundreds of thousands of desperate refugees live within 60 miles of his headquarters. Every day he and his small team face the pressures of the tremendous human need that surrounds them. However, the first priority of their ministry is to be a house of prayer. According to him, “If the prayer and worship is weak, then the rest of the vision will be weak.”  The power to live out the second great commandment, to love others, is resident in the first commandment, to love God. And the power to love God well is in receiving His love for us, all of which is manifest profoundly in a culture of prayer and worship – that is, in an environment in which human hearts are intentionally set before the heart of God in divine communion, day after day, month after month, year after year. God is trumpeting corporate worship and prayer as a missions strategy. We see the wisdom of this in light of how it changes the atmosphere over a region, creates an open heaven, moves angels and demons, and empowers evangelism. But I believe a significant component of the wisdom of God in corporate worship and prayer as a missions strategy is that love for God and others is best cultivated in this environment. More than our zeal, our giftings, our programs or our talents and abilities, God wants to put love on display among those unreached by the Gospel. Ultimately, a community marked by love is what will attract the lost. My missionary friend often faces the temptation to abandon the priority of worship and prayer in order to devote more hours of the day to outreach. The voices within us that urge us to prioritize human need (the second commandment) over worship (the first commandment) are similar to the voice of Judas Iscariot in John 12, which questions the value of extravagant, sacrificial love.

When the acute pressures of rampant war, famine, racism and natural disaster that Jesus outlines in Matthew 24 confront us, our physical, mental, financial, emotional and spiritual reflexes will take over. When gametime comes, the season for preparation will quickly become history, and habits will take over. Jesus peeled back the curtain to reveal what lies ahead, both in terms of the troubles coming upon the human race and in how to prepare to be fully alive in love. Those who abide in His love and unite themselves to spiritual communities that prioritize corporate worship and prayer as expressions of first love will be among those who joyfully endure to the end and remain relevant to the fulfillment of the Great Commission.


T.C. Carter

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Fighting To Surrender

In the kingdom of God, surrender is fought for. The cost must be counted, and the yes must be found valuable enough to strengthen. Are we willing to invest our hearts in the battle even at great personal cost, for the sake of walking worthy of the calling we have received?  

When I got to the destination of my second midterm trip, things did not go as I expected. My first midterm I loved, in fact I would consider those months some of the best times of my life so far. Yet, my second mid term did not contain the instant ecstasy and joy I anticipated. Subconsciously I had begun to expect that if God was in it, then surely it would come easy. I expected it to be easy and to feel glorious like the first time. Yet it was not easy. Here is an excerpt from my journal. “It’s only two days in, but I don’t like it yet. In the natural, this place isn’t a good fit for me. I’m tired, disappointed, discouraged and I just plain don’t like it here so far.” To my dismay these feelings dragged into the tript longer and longer.  

I loved the location of my first midterm, so there was a strong temptation to compare or settle into disappointment. But a wise man once said comparison is the thief of joy. It may not have been what I expected, but often the biggest moments of growth come from unexpected places. Sometimes we learn more in the difficult than we learn in the easy because it forces us to get over our self-reliance and express our dependence on God. Maybe God was looking to test my yes to Him and my willingness to go anywhere.

I found it easy to look at the difficulties. I am an introvert, I get anxious in crowds and cities, and so being thrust into a global city with constant noise and chaos was overwhelming to say the least at first. I craved silence and the feeling of being totally alone. But maybe God wanted me to practice what I preach, and let my peace be more rooted in Him than in my circumstances. Maybe God brought me there because He was looking for a context to weed out roots of self-reliance and pride that had been hiding in my heart. So it was hard, but maybe God was looking to teach me that hard does not have to equate unfruitful or not worthwhile. Maybe I needed to learn to have a bad day and still be able to with confidence say it is well with my soul. In the chaos of the city I found a God whose peace was bigger than the storm. In the end it was more than worth it all.

There came a time on the trip that I had to make a choice. I could not keep expecting my joy to return only when my circumstance changed, and I could not keep serving God without a heartfelt love for the people I was ministering to. But my heart was stubborn. I wanted to love them and enjoy it, but try as I may, I could not conjure up feelings of love for the place or the people. I could not guilt myself into sincerity. I had to surrender all of my feelings and expectations, and fall into the embrace of my Father. I had to confess my weakness and dependence on Him. At the end of the day, I only had one choice. It all came down to, do I say yes or no. I am either fully in or I don’t play the game. Christ gets everything, or He gets nothing. If I conditioned my yes to whether or not I like it or feel it suits me, then I would be merely be saying yes to my own comfort and not to the glory of God. I could no longer dictate to God what saying yes to Him must look or feel like. I was either going to live fully surrendered to Him or I was going to live for myself, because living surrendered until I think I know better is merely using God. So every day I would wake up needing to choose again to love, and love says yes. Love necessitates a fully surrendered, unconditional yes.

So I committed to wrestle with the yes and fight to live surrendered. Every day I got on my knees and on my face and asked God to change my heart. I told Him that no matter the cost, no matter what I felt, and no matter what it looked like I would choose to say yes to Him. I asked Him to show me what He felt for nation in which I lived. And the strange thing is, once I said yes, I began to love the people of the land. Individual by individual God began to change my heart.

There would be moments when Holy Spirit would bring to my mind images of my Jesus on a cross. And in those moments I would break. In those moments everything I did or did not feel would shatter. I found that more than I loved a feeling, I love my Jesus. It is not okay that the nation I was in did not sing to Him. When I think of my Jesus hanging on a cross everything changes. He is enough. He is always enough. Within this revelation I found my heart began to overflow with emotions deeper than words can express. The worth and beauty of Jesus birthed a joy in a my soul that nothing in the world can compare to. No amount of worldly comfort, satisfaction, self-pity or even grandeur can compare to the glory of His face. When I said yes, when time after time I got on my knees and surrendered, He would come and take my face in His hands and meet my gaze. As I would look into His face, the childishness of the moments before would begin to dawn on me. Oh how hard I felt I fought, how grand I thought my efforts, when in reality I had done nothing in comparison to what He had first done for me. My battle to say yes was nothing more than letting go of filthy slime in exchange for a treasure greater than I could ever have imagined.

It is this revelation that will sustain me and keep me from burnout. It is his revelation that will teach me to rest and be still even in the midst of the chaos of a city far from God. It is this revelation that will keep me steadfast for 5, 10, 20 and even 90 years. It is this revelation that will keep peace and hope rooted in my soul no matter what is against me. It is this revelation that will sustain me regardless of what my eyes may see.

It is good to learn that an unconditional yes is something that is fought for. Both in its establishment and in the maintaining it is worth the cost. But in the end what I most learned, that as much as we fight to surrender we will never fight as hard as He Himself has fought for us. As much as we work to give Him a yes that is wholehearted and unconditional, we work knowing that He first gave us His yes and His all. We give all knowing that what we get is greater than what we give, for we can never outgive God. He is worthy of it all.


History of the Modern Protestant Missions Movement

Part 3

Four years after the Edinburg Conference, the world was gripped by the sudden outbreak of one of the worst military conflicts in the history of the earth- the First World War. Protestant missions efforts were interrupted as the world was engulfed in this crisis. By the time the dust cleared in 1918, the entire world was nearly unrecognizable- the old order had been swept away in the conflict.

The era of empires had come crashing down. Gone was the German, Russian and Ottoman Empires and deeply broken were those of the British and French. Besides the immediate infrastructural devastation of Western Europe, the deaths of over 16 million young men in combat and 40 million people from the simultaneous global flu pandemic, a much deeper loss had taken place. The deep sense of optimism in human progress, prosperity and the advancement of Western utopianism that had marked the 19th century was dashed to pieces in the trench warfare of the Great War.

This affected all levels of society across the world. Europe’s prosperity and peace had been understood to be the success of not just Western ideology and culture but of Christianity itself. The Postmillennialism that had marked early Western missions exploits was harnessed to this concept and when it all came crashing down this theology was abandoned- it had been destroyed in the war along with the old order. In the face of such unspeakable suffering, people no longer believed that the Kingdom of God would physically advance unhindered towards greater levels of glory, prosperity and victory in unrelenting progress. Deep pessimism and disillusionment fell upon the modern Western world. More than the failure of Western civilization, the First World War was seen in the eyes of many to be the failure of Christianity.

Many people -both Christian and otherwise- began to question the legitimacy of Christianity itself. If Europe -the beacon of Christianity in the world- could completely destroy itself in such a catastrophe, how could Christianity as a faith be legitimate? This disillusionment affected even the most devout believers; the entire superstructure of Western Christianity felt the shock to the system- including the missions movement.  

The SVM was one of many organizations deeply impacted by the devastation of the war. In their 1919 conference, the former optimistic tone of SVM leaders had been replaced with a need to defend the faith itself in the face of disillusionment among the students present. Robert Speer is quoted in his address to those present at the conference as saying, “I am going to open quite candidly the questions that some of you have been discussing right here in these days as to whether there is worth enough in our Christian faith… There are men here in this conference, women too, who are saying that Christianity here in America, and as expressed by this Student Volunteer Convention, is a failure… No, Jesus hasn’t failed, and He isn’t going to fail. But I tell you men and women that there is a danger here of failure tonight- that we ourselves may fail.” In spite of the pleas of leaders, the disillusionment among SVM students continued. An observer at their conference five years later is quoted as saying, “There was not any expression or conviction on the part of the students that the way of Jesus is the way.” In fact, although the SVM would continue to make a tremendous impact on the missions world for many more years, its terminal end can be traced back to this traumatic post-war period.

This was not exclusive to only SVM. Rather, the events within the ranks of SVM was symptomatic of a broader and more general chagrin within the Protestant missions world. Along with the psychological challenge from the war, the expenses of the war began to effect missions organizations and many of them went into debt. Many people began to stop giving to missions exploits and it is reported that many students interviewed for missions admitted that their main focus was not missions, but was to secure a career to make lots of money. Students, long the bulk of the missionary movement, were now unenthusiastic about missions. Recruitment numbers dropped dramatically and missions agencies began to dwindle. This represented the beginning of a major decline in Western Protestant missions.

The pre-war world and framework that Protestant missions had functioned within had been broken by the conflict in Europe. The financial, cultural, emotional and theological challenges from World War 1 nearly ended the Protestant missions movement. It would not be for another twenty years that it would once again gain momentum. However, when that momentum resumed, it would come back with an incredible shift in global missions strategy- one that has remained with us to this day.


The Third Era- Unreached People Groups (1935- Present)


During the difficult years of the early 20th century, in the midst of great challenges to Protestant missions, two men stood out as significant influential leaders in their generation. Their contributions to the advancement of the Great Commission -comparable to that of Carey and Taylor- have had far reaching effects that are still felt to this day in that they were critical in the initiation of the Third Era of Protestant missions. These men are Cameron Townsend and Donald McGavran.

Cameron Townsend was born in Eastvale, California on July 9, 1896. While attending Occidental College in Los Angeles during his junior year, John Mott of the SVM visited the campus and called the student body to give their lives for missions. Cameron soon responded to the call by meeting with Mott, joining the Student Volunteer Movement and dedicating his life to missions. Although he was part of the armed forces in the war, he was challenged by a friend to honor his commitment to the SVM and made the decision to request to be discharged and pursue missions in Guatemala.

He left for Guatemala in August of 1917 and committed to stay there for one year. Towards the end of his initial commitment, he had an encounter with an indigenous Cakchiquel Indian that approached him as he was distributing Spanish Bibles. The man asked him what the Bible was and Townsend explained what it was God’s very word. The Cakchiquel Indian famously reported to have said, “If your God is so smart, why doesn’t he speak my language?”. Cameron suddenly realized that although the man lived in a predominantly Spanish speaking country, he spoke no Spanish whatsoever.

This encounter marked him in a significant way. He soon met with an older group of missionaries who had already concluded the need to reach indigenous populations in their own languages and then began his work. At the age of 23, he decided to remain in Guatemala for 13 more years, dedicating 10 of those years to translating the Bible into the Cakchiquel language. He realized that although much of the geography of the world was being reached by Protestant missions, there was an entirely new and much more nuanced frontier that was unreached: distinct ethnic peoples.

Cameron founded Wycliffe Bible Translators in 1934. This new mission agency focused on teaching linguistics as a means to reach these new frontiers. Initially, Cameron estimated there were about 500 people groups in the earth. He revised these numbers several times and today they are estimated at over 5000. There are still roughly about 3000 languages without the Bible translated in the earth. Cameron is credited for the initiation of the Third Era of missions. The focus of this new era transcended the traditional geographic focus of missions and instead concentrated on ethnic people groups.

Meanwhile, as Townsend was discovering the linguistic nuances of people groups in Guatemala, Donald McGavran was discovering the social and cultural barriers in India. McGavran was born in Damoh, India in 1897 as a third generation missionary. In 1919, while a student at Butler University, McGavran visited Des Moines, Iowa to attend an SVM convention and was deeply influenced by John Mott. McGavran described the event as, “There is became clear to me that God was calling me to be a missionary, that He was commanding me to carry out the Great Commission”.

McGavran returned to India in 1923 and was deeply influenced by the anthropological work of J.W. Pickett who documented mass people movements to Christ in India. McGavran was troubled by the slow growth of his churches while at the same time he saw many “people movements” (thousands of people in groups) scattered across India coming to the Lord. In this time, he began see the distinct cultural and social barriers in India and started to promote the reality of homogenous units of people which are today referred to as “people groups”. McGavran’s missiological work in his book, “Bridges of God” helped to formalize the understanding of distinct boundaries within different regions that constituted unique ethnic “people groups”.

The collective work of Townsend and McGavran (both greatly impacted by the Student Volunteer Mission Movement) framed the new era of missions by calling attention to the various ethnolinguistic people groups in the earth as opposed to the more simplified geographical focus in past generations.

The progressive decline in Protestant missions that had came about after the First World War came to an end after the Second World War in 1945. The missions movement was being revitalized by thousands of veterans who were returning from Europe and the Pacific with a deep burden to bring the gospel to the places they saw that had been ravaged by the war. In 1946, 575 students from 151 different schools gathered at the University of Toronto to dream for a fresh student movement for missions. Two years later, in 1948, they gathered for another missions convention at the University of Illinois, Urbana. Urbana student missions conventions have continued to this day with the expressed purpose of mobilization for the Great Commission.

Out of the Urbana conventions, many veterans from the Second World War who had a desire to return to the foreign lands to bring the gospel were sent back out as missionaries. The experience of the war had prepared many of them so that they went out into the missions field with extraordinary effectivity. Collectively, God used them to rally another massive student-led missions movement. In the late 1940’s through the early 1950’s, more students went overseas for missions than in any other time in history- including the great Student Volunteer Missions Movement which by this time was nearly discontinued. It was this missions thrust that produced such incredible laborers as Jim Elliot, who would be martyred in Ecuador in 1956 for the sake of the gospel of Jesus.

Although the students of the 1960’s embraced more anti-government and liberal activism (thus resulting in a decline of missionaries) the 1970’s witnessed an increase of missions interest through the Urbana student missionary conventions and the Jesus Movement. Within a few years, the amount of students signing up for missions increased by nearly ten times that of 1970.

In July of 1974, one of the most significant missions conferences in history was held in Lausanne, Switzerland. The Lausanne Congress of 1974 (Also known as the First International Congress on World Evangelization) was called together by Billy Graham for a discussion on the present state of missions. With over 150 nations represented, Lausanne sought to follow in succession from the 1910 Edinburgh Conference and strategized for the completion of the Great Commission. Out of the congress the Lausanne Covenant (one of the great manifestos on world missions) was produced and signed by nearly three thousand leaders.

Ralph Winter, one of the most influential men in the history of missions attended the congress. He is widely acknowledged to be just as catalytic in the development of Protestant missions as Carey, Taylor, Townsend, and McGavran. Winter understood that the gospel does not naturally transfer from different cultures or castes even if the people share the same language. It was at the Lausanne Congress that Winter championed the work of Townsend and McGavran and popularized the concept of unreached people groups using an understanding of the biblical word ethnos as a missions strategy. He declared that for the Great Commission to be fulfilled, the gospel had to be planted in each culturally unique ethnolinguistic people group. His speech took Lausanne by storm.

Six years later, in 1980, another missions conference was held in Edinburgh, Scotland known as The Edinburgh- 1980 World Consultation on Frontier Missions. At the time, it was the largest missions conference in the history of Christianity. Remarkably, a third of those present at Edinburgh were indigenous representatives from the Global South representing 57 mission agencies- in 1910 there had been none. In Edinburgh, the strategy of focusing missions to unreached ethnolinguistic people groups became solidified. As a result of these developments, it is generally regarded that the Second Era of missions found its completion in 1980 as the missions world transitioned to a premier focus of unreached and unengaged peoples.

In 1989, at the Second International Congress on World Evangelization (Lausanne II) in Manilla, Christian missionary strategist Luis Bush called for a focused missional thrust into the “Resistant Belt” of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Following the strategy of unreached people groups missions, Bush and his associates understood that the remaining task of the world evangelism could only be accomplished by pushing into this massive “Belt”. The next year, Bush and his wife Doris used software to analyze this “Resistant Belt” region between 10 and 40 degrees north latitude and coined the famous term, “the 10/40 Window”. This region, the world of Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism was referred to in 1911 by the great missionary Samuel Zwemer as the, “unoccupied fields” of the earth.


Finishing the Task


Since 1990, the world of missions has continued to evolve. The Toronto and Brownsville revivals in the mid-nineties fueled the fire of world evangelization and served the development of the missional Global South tremendously. Today, the Christian world is no longer Western-led. The Global South is no longer “developing”. In many ways, it has already emerged and has taken the lead in the task of world evangelization.

Today, the church in Africa and Asia represents over 60% of the world’s population of Christians. Meanwhile, the church of Europe is dying out. The church of America has maintained roughly the same growth ratio as the year 1900. In 1900, there were 8 million Christians in Africa; in 2000, there were 351 million. African evangelicals send out approximately 13,000 missionaries a year.

The story is similar in Asia. In 1900 there were around 22 million Christians. In 2005 there are estimated 370 million believers, making Christianity the fastest growing religion in Asia.

In Latin America there were estimated 700,000 evangelicals in 1900. By 2000 the numbers had grown to over 55 million believers.

Today the missions dynamics are no longer primarily west-to-east. The Global South has assumed a significant role in the sending of missionaries There are more African missionaries than European ones. Missionaries from Brazil travel across the earth sharing the good news of Jesus. In China, the “Back to Jerusalem” missionary movement has already begun and endeavors to send hundreds of thousands of missionaries across the 10/40 Window.

The task remains massive. After twenty centuries of missions activity there is still about 27% of the world that remains unreached (comprising over 7000 people groups). Since 1974, the strategy in place is to reach ethnic people groups with the gospel- an effort that transcends geopolitical boundaries and classical missions strategies. Today, the West no longer leads the charge but rather partners shoulder to shoulder with the Global South.

Since the day that Jesus stood before His disciples and friends and gave them the Great Commision He has guided generations of faithful men and women towards its completion. He promised that the good news of His coming Kingdom would be spread across the earth as a testimony to every ethnos and then He would return to restore all things. If there is one thing that can be drawn from looking back on the last 300 years of Protestant Missions history, it’s that Jesus is alive. He is with us. He is active in His Church in the earth by His Spirit. He has driven and is driving all of our missions efforts to a marvelous conclusion and the gates of hell will never prevail against His Church. As we now turn our eyes ahead to what lies before us and as we seek to finish this Great Commission, we can be certain of His most blessed and profound promise: “Lo I am with you always, even to the very end of the age”.




History of the Modern Protestant Missions Movement

Part 2

Pressing On

The collective force of the first two Great Awakenings transformed the Protestant world from a mere theological and ecclesiological western European movement into a pioneering missional force to be reckoned with, piercing nearly every known nation in the world with the gospel of Jesus Christ. The 19th century, known as the, “Great Century” of missions, witnessed the spread and advancement of the gospel like no other prior century in history. The outpourings of God’s Spirit in Europe and the Americas had created a mighty force of sacrificial missionaries, most of whom lost their lives as heralds of the message of the cross of Jesus on the coastlands of Asia and Africa.

The era of the Second Great Awakening came to a close in a very turbulent and transitional time in America, most notably with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Europe and Asia starting around 1850. In this time it is estimated that over 20 million immigrants moved to America from central and eastern Europe as well as Asia. At the same time, Darwinism and higher criticism were flooding over into the Americas from Europe, challenging much of the old order of Christian thinking and society. It was in this context of transition and crisis that God began to stir hearts of believers once again for a new era of missions.

We will continue to examine the history of Protestant missions starting from the mid 19th century all the way to today. The last 150 years has witnessed an even greater development and diversification of missions across the nations of the earth. This development has dramatically changed the face of world missions so that today the Global South (the non-Western world) has taken the leading role in the task of world evangelisation. Through an examination of the last 150 years of missions history we can begin to understand how a series of interrelated events crescendoed to produce our current missional focus in the nations: missions targeting unreached ethnolinguistic peoples in the predominantly North African, Middle Eastern and Asian world. We pick up our story just one month after the end of the American Civil War in the summer of 1865 on the beaches of southern England.

Transition to The Second Era – Inlands (1865-1980) & Hudson Taylor

The results of the First Era of missions had been remarkable. Although slow to gain momentum and at a tremendous cost, (nearly every missionary succumbed to death in their endeavors on the coastlands) the First Era of missions finally stabilized into a magnificent success as the gospel began to take root in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. In fact, by 1865, many missionaries of the First Era were beginning to come home due to the overwhelming success of their church planting efforts in the coastlands. Many indigenous people had come to the faith in Christ and the First Era missionaries believed that, in a sense, their job was finished.

This marked a transitional overlapping period from roughly 1865-1910 where First Era, coastlands missions began to slowly decline while the Second Era missions (directed towards penetrating the inlands of the Asian and African continents) began to gain speed. It is important to note that in spite of the numerous missions societies produced out of the Haystack Prayer Meeting of 1806, the First Era of missions was marked by European dominance. It would not be until the beginning of the Second Era in 1865 that America began to assume a premier role in the task of world evangelization. It was in this year that a man named Hudson Taylor took the scene to catalyze a new movement of Protestant missions.

Hudson Taylor was born May 21, 1832 in Yorkshire, England to a Methodist family. His father was a lay preacher and chemist in the Yorkshire area. It is said that at Hudson’s birth, his parents who had a fascination with the Far East, prayed to the Lord, “Grant that he may work for You in China”. After abandoning the faith of his parents for several years as a young man, he had a conversion experience at the age of 17 in the year 1849. Immediately, Hudson had a burden for the gospel to go to China. In preparation to be a missionary, he began to teach himself Mandarin, Latin, Hebrew and Greek while working as a medical assistant. During this time, Taylor interacted with missionaries to Baghdad who were part of the well known Plymouth Brethren, of which George Müller was a member.

During the time Taylor was practicing medicine and preparing to move overseas, much of England’s focus and talk was interestingly enough on China. In the 1850’s the horrific Taiping Civil War broke out across China led by a religious fanatic named Hong Xiuquan. Xiuquan, having interacted with First Era missionaries years prior, adopted a pseudo-Christianity syncretized with Confucianism and Daoism. He soon established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and declared himself to be the actual younger brother of Jesus Christ that could speak on behalf of the Holy Trinity. Xiquan launched a civil war to control all of China that killed upwards of 70 million people before he was finally defeated in 1864. Tragically, the erroneous impression in England was that this was a massive people movement to Christ in China. Out of news of this “people movement”, the Chinese Evangelisation Society was formed in 1853 to prepare for missionaries to be sent into China- Hudson Taylor was sent as their first missionary at the age of 22.

After a difficult five month voyage from England, Taylor landed in Shanghai March 1, 1854 and was met with the astounding horror of the Taiping Civil War. Far from a great people movement to Christ, his first year overseas was marked with the chaos of the war and very little receptivity to his message. Along with the trial of the war, Taylor also experienced challenges in his interactions with the First Era missionaries who were content to remain ministering in the cities on the coastlands. Taylor viewed the missionaries on the coastlands as worldly and lethargic, who spent far too much time with English businessmen. Regardless of whether or not his view was accurate, Taylor intended to push beyond the status quo of the missions of the day and press into the interior of China. During his time, Taylor pioneered some of the earliest and most famous forms of contextualization to the Chinese culture by wearing traditional Chinese clothing and hairstyles instead of the typical Western garb of his contemporaries. While this choice caused great consternation among other Christians both in China and abroad, Taylor began to see an immediate openness among the Chinese people to his gospel message. This pioneering contextualization has transformed the way Protestants approach foreign cultures in missions even to this day.

Trials continued to follow him. At one point, all of his medical supplies were destroyed in a fire in Shanghai. Another time he was robbed of almost everything he owned while traveling across China. The next year in 1857, Taylor experienced great difficulty with his missions agency who could no longer continue to pay him and his fellow workers. After an encouraging letter from George Müller to live by faith, Taylor resigned from the Chinese Evangelisation Society and continued independently. The next year he married Maria Dyer (a fellow missionary who at the time was serving under Mary Aldersey, reputed to be the first woman missionary to China) and continued to serve in Ningpo with a new church plant of 21 people until 1861, when he was forced to temporarily return to England due to health problems.

It was on this furlough in England that the Second Era of missions was officially born. He spent his time on furlough traveling the nation to mobilize missions to China and the unreached world. On this trip he became friends with Charles Spurgeon, who would become a lifelong supporter of Taylor’s mission. During this time, Taylor was invited by a friend to take a break from traveling and come to the beaches of Brighton in southern England.

While walking the beaches of Brighton, he felt the overwhelming burden of the Lord for the millions of lost in China and had a dramatic encounter with the Jesus that changed the course of history. In that moment, Hudson Taylor dedicated his life in an even greater measure to the advancement of the gospel in the unreached inland provinces of China. June 25, 1865, on the sands of Brighton Beach, China Inland Mission was born as an expression of his dedication to this advancement.

Immediately Taylor asked the Lord for 24 more missionaries for all of the unreached provinces in China and Mongolia- a massive 25% increase from what was already present on the field. In the next few years, over 100 missionaries would go to the missions field through China Inland Mission. Over half of those missionaries would be martyred years later in the infamous Boxer Rebellion of 1900, much to the agony of Taylor who received reports of their deaths while visiting England on a separate furlough.

He returned to China in 1866 and would dedicate the rest of his life ministering there as a missionary in the interior of the nation. Through many difficult years, and through the loss of two wives and several children to infirmity, he paid a tremendous price to carry out God’s will in his generation. On June 3, 1905, Hudson Taylor died in Changsha, China. He was buried in Zhenjiang along the Yangtze River next to the love of his life, his first wife Maria, who had been buried there 35 years before.

Taylor’s decision on the sands of Brighton Beach to give himself entirely into the grace of God for the advancement of world missions opened the way for the birth of China Inland Mission, which would become the largest Protestant missions agency in the world by the time of his death and would fling wide the doors for the Second Era of missions. The legacy of CIM (now Overseas Missionary Fellowship International) is still felt to this day and the work of Hudson Taylor will be spoken of for ages to come.

The Student Volunteer Missions Movement

While Hudson Taylor was pioneering missions in China, God was raising up a mighty missions movement in the United States. The Student Volunteer Missions (SVM) Movement was beginning to form in the hearts and minds of young believers across the country. This movement became perhaps the single greatest missions force in North American history and accelerated the sending and going of laborers far beyond anything that Protestantism had witnessed up to that point.

The SVM had its origins in the famous Haystack Prayer Meeting of 1806. Out of that prayer meeting at Williams College numerous missions societies and organizations were born, including the Society of Brethren at Andover Theological Seminary in Newton, Massachusetts. One of its members, a man by the name of Royal Wilder, left for India as a missionary in 1846 and returned with his family in 1877. Royal’s son, Robert was to become a premier leader in the upcoming missions movement.

Robert Wilder was born in India in 1863 and returned to America at age 14. He joined Princeton University and began to pray with several students on campus for missions and revival in Princeton. During that time he founded the “Princeton Foreign Mission Society” and continued to pray fervently with fellow students and his sister Grace on a weekly basis for God to raise up 1000 missionaries to be sent overseas. Their society declared of themselves, “willing and desirous, God permitting, to go to the unevangelized portions of the world”.

In the same year, Luther Wishard became the first secretary of the new intercollegiate YMCA division. Luther’s desire was not only for the gospel to impact college campuses through the YMCA, but also for it to impact the nations through world missions. In 1879, Wishard helped to organize the first missions department of the intercollegiate YMCA. He was deeply inspired by the events at the Haystack Prayer Meeting and the life of Samuel Mills and traveled to Williams College to pray for a missions movement. At the site of the old prayer meeting, along the river, Luther prayed, “Lord, do it again. Where water once flowed, let it flow again.” Although he greatly desired to be a missionary, he felt the burden of the Lord to mobilize a generation of students for the task of world evangelization. After his trip to Williams College, he sought to host a summer conference for college students and left to seek out revivalist D.L. Moody to help in this endeavor.

D.L. Moody, the great American evangelist, had visited Britain in 1882 to tour the country and preach the gospel. During this year, he visited the university of Cambridge and shared the gospel and mobilized for world missions. The results were staggering. Many Cambridge students began to sign up for local missions societies to go overseas. During this time, there was an increasing interest among the students in the recently formed China Inland Mission.

Out of Moody’s meetings in Cambridge, the Holy Spirit began to move across the hearts of seven brilliant young students in particular for missions overseas. After graduation, they traveled throughout England and Scotland visiting colleges and churches mobilizing for world missions. These became known as the Cambridge Seven. In February of 1885, after several months of traveling, the Cambridge Seven sailed to China to give their lives for missions. One of the seven, a man named Charles Thomas, would later become the successor to Hudson Taylor as the director of CIM. The news of the Cambridge Seven began to sweep through American colleges and many students became deeply inspired by their example to pursue missions.  It was out of these events that Luther Wishard sought out the help of D.L Moody and others for the mobilization of missionaries from the American college campuses.

In 1886, Wishard approached Moody about hosting a month long summer Bible conference at his Mount Hermon School for Boys in Massachusetts. Moody, although uncertain that students would want to take a month of their summer for the conference, finally agreed to host it. Beginning July 7, 1886, the conference continued until August 1. Although Wishard desired for students to be raised up for world missions, the conference itself did not have a specific agenda. 251 young men from 89 colleges across America attended and numerous speakers and professors came to speak and share during the duration of the conference. Remarkably, in spite of Wishard’s missions zeal, there was no real missional emphasis present during the conference initially. This emphasis would come from the student body itself, led by Robert Wilder.

Wilder sent word during the conference that any students who were interested in missions should join in a special meeting. Out of that meeting, 21 students joined the Princeton Foreign Mission Society. Soon the 21 students began to spread the word to the broader student body about the need of missionaries. They approached several leaders to share on missions but in particular they asked a well known pastor present named A.T. Pierson to share on the Great Commission at one of the main sessions. Pierson’s call to evangelize the world in their generation shook the conference with a missions spirit and by the end of the conference 100 students signed up to give their lives as missionaries. They became known as the “Mount Hermon 100” and with this the SVM was born.

The next year, Wilder and an associate John Forman traveled across America preaching at almost 200 college campuses mobilizing for world missions. Within two years over 5000 students had signed the pledge to give their lives as missionaries. In 1888, the “Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions” was officially established and John Mott, one of the original 100, was chosen to serve as chairman. Within five years of Mount Hermon there were 6200 student volunteers from 352 schools in the United States and Canada, encompassing a vast array of denominations and social backgrounds. Their watchword, officially adopted in 1889, was, “The Evangelisation of the World in This Generation”. The leaders of this movement truly believed that the completion of the Great Commission was possible in their generation and they proved it by the incredible thrust of missionaries into the unreached, inland world.

Over 40% of the students went to China, Japan, Korea and other parts of Southeast Asia. 21% went to India, Burma and Sri Lanka. The rest went to Africa, Iran, the Ottoman Empire, Arabia and many other unreached places. In 1890, there were only 934 Protestant missionaries on the field. By the end of the 1920’s, there were over 14,000 missionaries-  half of whom had signed on through the SVM.

The powerful Student Volunteer Movement pierced into the darkness of the unreached inland world for decades. It is undisputed that the Protestant missions thrust was spearheaded for years by college students. To this day, the SVM represents the single greatest movement of missionaries to the nations in American history.

Although the First World War caused the movement to go into terminal decline, by 1945 the SVM in total had rallied over 100,000 volunteers with over 20,500 actually sent as missionaries (the rest remained to mobilize). Because of the unimaginably wild success of the Student Volunteer Missions Movement, the United States took the leading role in the advancement of world missions, which it would maintain for the better part of a century.

Turbulence & Transition of the Early 20th Century

As the “Great Century” of world missions came to a close so did the era of relatively unchallenged progress in Protestant missions. Although there were always challenges to the objective of world evangelisation, (such as theological opposition, the daunting task of mobilization and martyrdom to name a few) the 19th century witnessed a steady overwhelming progress of missions efforts.

This progress is to be understood within the framework of the broader 19th century social and theological optimism. The Western world of the mid to late 19th century was deeply optimistic due to the social and cultural expansion of Westernism through colonial influence. The Industrial Revolution had ushered in a new era of technological and economic growth; It seemed that anything was possible.

Even in the Protestant missions world, the continued prevalence of Postmillennial theology and the increased expansion of the gospel on the earth through the enormous missions exploits crystalized this sense of mirthful optimism. In the last few decades of the 19th century it seemed that no matter where one looked, societal progress was everywhere. All of this began to come crashing down at the turn of the century through a series of events culminating in the outbreak of the First World War. In the midst of this turbulence there was a deep undercurrent of transition running through the Protestant missions world; the balance of global mission leadership was beginning to shift away from the West.

In April and May of 1900, Protestant missions leaders from various denominations gathered from across the nation in New York to strategize for the advancement of world missions. They discussed the need to mobilize more Christian congregations and turn the public support towards missions in a greater measure. This became known as the New York 1900 Ecumenical Missionary Conference. The leaders present shared on the testimony of the magnificent expansion of Christianity during the 19th century as well as to cast vision and discuss strategy for the new century that was upon them. The sense at the conference was one of great triumph and joyful expectation of what was to come.

The very next month, in June 1900, the Boxer Rebellion in China took a tragic turn after one of the governors of northern China declared war against Western powers and Christians in particular. In July, 44 Christians from missionary families were massacred after being promised shelter in a provincial capital in the infamous Taiyuan Massacre.

By the end of the rebellion, 136 Protestant missionaries, 53 of their children (many of them served with China Inland Mission) and 2,000 Chinese Protestants were martyred by the rebels. These Protestants became known as the China Martyrs of 1900. Along with Protestant martyrs, 47 Catholic priests and nuns, over 30,000 Chinese Catholics and several hundred Russian Orthodox believers were murdered.

The sum impact of the Boxer Rebellion was a withdrawal of European influence in Chinese affairs and a shock to the system of Western missionary efforts. The optimism present during the New York 1900 Ecumenical Mission Conference was deeply challenged with the news of mass martyrdom of the Boxer Rebellion. Indeed the effects were felt all across the Western world. This juxtapositional shock would characterize the next few decades of the 20th century.

Six years later, the Holy Spirit visited Los Angeles, California with an incredible revival that transformed the face of missions forever. The Azusa Street Revival, led by the African American preacher William J. Seymour, birthed the modern Pentecostal/ Charismatic movement in the earth. Thousands flocked to Azusa Street to receive a baptism in the Holy Spirit during the years of the revival.

One of the most marked characteristics of Azusa was that it was not contained  geographically in the same way that the two Great Awakenings were. While the Great Awakenings mostly impacted America and Western Europe, Azusa was unique in its near global impact seemingly at the outset of the revival- in particular, its impact on the birthing of missions movements in the non-Western world.

In just over a century, Pentecostalism has exploded across the earth and now comprises over 25% of all Christians on the planet. Much of this population is indigenous to the Global South. The expansion of Pentecostalism has far surpassed every other denominational exploit in the non-Western world for the last hundred years. In Chile for example, Methodism has grown to 5000 believers while Pentecostalism grew to 2,371,000. In Brazil, the Baptist denomination grew to 1,050,000 while Pentecostalism grew to over 21 million believers! Pentecostalism is currently the fastest growing denomination in numerous parts of Africa. Within just two years of Azusa the movement had spread into over 50 nations including: Britain, Botswana, Scandinavia, Egypt, Holland, Syria, Germany, South Africa, China, Hong Kong, Ceylon and India.

The Azusa Street Revival poured the life of the gospel into the Global South to such a degree that the balance of leadership in global missions has shifted away from the West in recent decades. This shift can be traced back to Azusa.

In June of 1910, the World Missionary Conference was hosted in Edinburgh, Scotland with the expressed purpose of discussing the advancement of missions in the Protestant world. The SVM watchword, “The Evangelization of the World in this Generation” was adopted by the conference. In fact, John R. Mott, who served as its chairman described it as, “the most notable gathering in the interest of the world-wide expansion of Christianity ever held, not only in missionary annals, but in all Christian annals”.

Among the agenda items at the conference was a desire to see a genuine ecumenical movement of unity between the various denominations in the task of world evangelization. It was at this conference that a truly global church was envisioned. Another agenda item was the discussion of the transition of leadership and evangelism in foreign churches from Western missionaries to the indigenous believers in those nations. This was an unprecedented pursuit and demonstrated just how successful the missions movements in the East had been in the establishment of thriving indigenous churches.

Significantly, Edinburgh is understood to be the formal close of the First Era of Protestant Missions. The era of pioneering into the coastlands had concluded. The coastlands were reached and their indigenous believers were ready to begin to assume leadership in the place of Western workers. The prominence of “Kingdom Mission” (the holistic missions efforts of the William Carey era that sought to transform and “civilize” mission fields along Western cultural lines) was over and had given way to the Second Era of missions. The Second Era was marked by a “Church Mission”, with the emphasis off of societal gospel impact and on evangelism and personal salvation.

The legacy of the Edinburgh World Missionary Conference was that it marked a crescendo in Western missionary efforts to the unreached. It is seen by many as the highest point of Western leadership in world missions and the beginning of a truly global church. Andrew Walls said it well, “The World Missionary Conference, Edinburgh 1910, has passed into Christian legend. It was a landmark in the history of mission; the starting point of the modern theology of mission; the high point of the Western missionary movement and the point from which it declined; the launch pad of the modern ecumenical movement; the point at which Christians first begin to glimpse something of what a world church would be like.